Historical Synopsis for the Middle East, Eastern and Western Europe, 1000-13 21

Islam Byzantine Empire Western Europe
1009 Jerusalem Taken by Fatamid
Hakim, Jews and Christians persecuted
1002 Venice aids Byzantium in defending Bari against Arabs 1002 Death of German Emperor Otto III
1055-1058 Seljuk Turks Occupy Baghdad,
control Caliph
1054 Death of Rus Jaroslav the Wise
1054 Split between the Byzantine and Latin Churches
1049 Leo IX, reform pope
1059 Pope makes Normans his vassals 1059 Decree regulating papal elections
1071 Seljuk Turks defeat Byzantines at Manzikert 1071 Catastrophic Byzantine double defeat: Bari and Manzikert 1066 Normans conquer England
1074 Gregory VII's Dictatus papae
1081 Alexis I devalues Byzantine coinage
1082 Venice secures consessions in Constantinople
1077 Henry IV humbled at Canossa
1085 Spanish Christians take Toledo 1095 Alexis asks for military aid 1095 Urban II at Synod of Piacenza receives Alexis' request
1095 Disunity in Middle East 1095 Urban preaches First Crusade
1095 Crusaders pass through Constantiople 1095 Crusaders traverse Europe
Anti-Jewish Pogroms in Rhineland
1099 Jerusalem Falls to Western armies
Crusader kingdom of Jerusalem esrablished
1107 Norman Duke Bohemund invades Byzantine territory 1100 University of Bologna established
1100-1200 Champagne Fairs prosper
1100-1200 Cistercian monastic order
1141 Peter the Venerable visits Muslim Spain;
leads to first Latin translation of the Qur'an
1144 Muslim Recapture of Edessa
1147 Roger of Sicily attacks Thessalonika;
Manuel I, emperor
1142 Death of Abelard
1147 Bernard preaches Second Crusade
1169-1193 Reign of Saladin 1167-1196 Stephen Nemanya, founder of Serb state 1158 Diet of Roncaglia:
Frederick Barbarossa and the Lombard Cities
Notre Dame Cathedral begun
1171 Saladin defeats Fatimids in Egypt 1176 Turks defeat Byzantines at Myriocephalon 1174 Battle of Legnano: Frederick Barbarossa Defeated
1176 Massacre of Latins at Constantinople 1180-1223 Philip II of France
1187 Saladin takes Jerusalem
Death of Gerald of Cremona (Toledo) translator of Ptolemy and Avicenna
1187 Preparation for Third Crusade
1198 Death of Averroës
1204 Death of Moses Maimonides
1204 Crusaders seize Constantiople
Latin Empire established
1200-1300 Italian gold coins
Guild system flourishes
1204 Fourth Crusade takes Constantinople
1208-1223 Albigensian Crusade
1212 Las Navas de Tolosa: Castilian Victory over Muslims 1214 Battle of Bouvines
1215 Fourth Lateran Council
Magna Carta signed
1258 Mongols take Baghdad, kill last caliph 1240 Mongols burn Kiev
1261 Michael Palaeologus restores Constantinople;
Byzantium revived
1268 Charles of Anjou takes Sicily
1280 Ottomans penetrate Asia Minor 1274 Council of Lyons between Greek and Latin rites 1270 Louis IX's crusade to Tunis
1274 Council of Lyons; death of Bonaventure and Aquinas
1291 Muslims take Acre 1282 Sicilian Vespers
1290 Jews expelled from England
1295 Edward I and English Parliament
1297 Closing of Venetian Grand Council
1302 Boniface's Bull Unam Sanctam
1306 Jews expelled from France
1321 Death of Dante